Top Universities in Europe

The European Commission has compiled a list of the top 22 universities in the EU with the highest scientific impact. [110] This ranking has been compiled as part of the Third European Report on Science & Technology Indicators, [111] prepared by the Directorate General for Science and Research of the European Commission in 2003 (updated in 2004). [112] It considers only express the EU’s main institutions, but comparisons with the rest of the world are in the full report. The report says: “University College London comes out on top in both publications (the number of scientific publications of the university) and citations (how many times these scientific publications cited by other researchers)” but the table shows the upper scoring the University as “Univ London” which means the authors calculated scientific results throughout the University of London, rather than its constituent colleges.

In this ranking, the EU’s two top universities are Cambridge and Oxford, as Jiao Tong and the Times ranking. This ranking emphasizes the scientific quality of the institution, as opposed to their size or perceived prestige. [ Citation needed ] Thus, less technical university, Eindhoven (Netherlands) and the Technical University Munich (Germany) are ranked third and fourth, behind Cambridge, followed by the University of Edinburgh. The report does not provide a direct comparison between the EU and universities in the rest of the world, although it calculate a scientific power points, measured against the world average.

In December 2008 the European Commission published a tender, inviting bidders to design and test a new multi-dimensional university ranking system with global reach. The first results of the planned pilot project were promised for the first half of 2011. [113]

Another way to classify the European Research offered by “European Research Ranking”. [114] This ranking is based on publicly available data from the European Commissions project and funding CORDIS database to estimate the funding and network performance for European research institutions.


Some Austrian universities, including all Austrian vocational schools, participation in the CHE University Ranking. [115]


The Bulgarian ranking system, which is maintained by the Bulgarian Ministry of Education, compare academic programs in accredited domestic universities. [116] The system ranks programs based on more than 50 indicators, such as teaching and learning conditions, scientific research, career development, prestige and material resources.


In Denmark, the think tank CEPOS conduct an annual survey and ranking of higher education on training and institutional levels, based on the record salary, career development, defection, and program flow. [117]


Le Nouvel Observateur and other popular newspapers sometimes offer rankings of universities, ” Grandes Ecoles ” and their preparatory schools, ” Prépas “.

Eduniversal gives France detailed undergraduate and doctorate rankings.


Since 2007, CHE “Excellence” is published by the Centre for Higher Education Development in Germany.[118] The ranking includes the science of biology, chemistry, mathematics and physics as well as psychology, political science and economics. The ranking is designed to support the search for masters or doctoral programs. CHE also want to highlight the research strengths of European universities and provide them with suggestions for improvements. The ranking is published by the German weekly Die Zeit newspaper in English and German. CHE Centre for Higher Education Development collects data for this rangordning.En English version provided by the DAAD.

CHE also publishes a “Research Ranking” shows the research strengths German universities. CHE Research Ranking is based on research-related data for University Ranking.


The Sunday Times ranks the Irish universities based on a mix of criteria including school test scores, graduation rates, staff-student ratio, efficiency research, housing, non-traditional students, athletics and sports facilities.


Each year, the newspaper La Repubblica , in collaboration with Censis, compile a ranking of Italian universities. [119] [120]


The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) compiled a ranking of Macedonian schools (institutions) on behalf of the country’s Ministry of Education and Science in February 2011 and released it on 16 February 2012. [121] Nineteen qualified colleges were included in the ranking. The ranking used 19 indicators of academic performance and competitiveness, covering major commissioned aspects of higher education, such as education, research and social services. It is the first university ranking in Macedonia. [122]


Most Dutch universities participating in the CHE University Ranking. [115]


A popular ranking of Polish universities published annually by educational magazine Perspektywy . [123]


Ad Astra association of Romanian scientists ranked Romanian university in 2006 and 2007. [124]


Several bodies are ranked Russian universities, including RIA Novosti / Forbes, independent rating agencies Rater, Interfax (in cooperation with the Ekho Moskvy) and Russian Journal “Economy”.

RIA Novosty / Forbes rankings conducted under the auspices of the Public Chamber of Russia in cooperation with the State University – Higher School of Economics. [125] [126] This rank is considered the most objective system. [ Citation needed ] It includes 476 universities and based on the average score of the Unified State Examination required to enter a universitet.Rankingen have separate subrankings for different subjects and groups of universities.

RIA Novosty rankings are not in line with other local and international ranking as the Academic Ranking of World Universities and QS World University Rankings that takes into account the reputation inherited from the Soviet Union. [125]

Independent Rating Agency Rater publishes annual ranking is based on the representation of university graduates in government, education and business elite. [127]

Interfax ranks annually “classic” (or faculty) universities and colleges specializing in law. [128] Interfax “method quantifies several qualitative factors such as research, teaching standards, public opinion and social and international operations.

Russian Journal “Economy” provides an integrated ranking of universities and colleges specializing in accounting and finance. [129] The magazine uses the average score of the Unified State Examination, the number of graduates and CFO consolidated turnover of companies where research CFO are employed.


In Sweden, the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (Confederation of Swedish Enterprise) to conduct an annual survey and ranking of higher education on the education level, based on the record salary, career development, internationalization, and the degree of academic-business collaboration. [130]


The swissUp Ranking ranked Swiss universities and vocational students until 2004. swissUp Ranking no longer conducted. Some universities in the German-speaking part of Switzerland, such as ISFOALugano participate in the CHE University Ranking.


Ukraine’s Ministry of Education and Science performs official annual university evaluations. [131] Zerkalo Nedeli newspaper published the top 200 ranking Ukrainian universities in 2007. [132] Kyiv Student Council ranks universities on the criteria for student satisfaction. [133]


The Research Excellence Framework was the successor to the Research Assessment Exercise 2014. It is used by the British Government to assess the quality of research in UK universities and determine the allocation of future research funding. In 2014, the five best universities, compiled by The Guardian was the University of Oxford, University College London, University of Cambridge, University of Edinburgh and the University of Manchester. [134]

The research assessment exercise (RAE) was the British Government’s assessment of the quality of research in UK universities. Each substance called a unit of assessment, was ranked a peer review panel.The rankings used in the allocation of state resources. The last assessment was made in 2008. RAE available quality ratings for research in all disciplines. Panels used a standard scale for each submission.Ratings ranged from 1 to 5, in accordance with the amount of work was judged to reach national or international level of excellence. Participating institutions receive funding from one of the four higher education funding bodies in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The three universities in the 2008 RAE exercise was London School of Economics, Cambridge University and Oxford University.

The quality assurance Higher Education (QAA) assesses undergraduate programs. QAA is an independent body established by the UK higher education institutions in 1997. QAA was under contract to the Education Funding Council for England higher for assessing the quality of English universities. It replaced the teaching quality assessments (TQAs) which aimed to evaluate the administrative, policy and procedural framework within which education took place and not directly assess the quality of teaching. This inspection-based system was replaced by a system of information dissemination, including a national student survey. QAA publishes the points that have been used by industry league table.

Other rankings include Times Good University Guide, The Complete University Guide, Independent, The Sunday Times University Guide, The Guardian University Guide (mainly for undergraduate education.)[135] Since 2008, the Times Higher Education has released the “Table of Tables” [136] which combines the results of three national rankings. For 2017, the top 5 universities varuniversitetet in Cambridge, Oxford University, the University of St. Andrews, and Imperial College London and Durham University in joint fourth. [137]